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Bible Lists and Charts   Brief Chronology of Church History

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Brief Chronology of Church History

The Early Church in the Third Century: 220-305

225 d. Tertullian
245 Conversion of Cyprian
247 Cyprian becomes Bishop of Carthage
249-251 The reign of Decius. He ordered everyone in the empire to burn incense to him. Those who complied were issued a certificate. Those who did not have a certificate were persecuted. Many Christians bought forged certificates, causing a great controversy in the church Cyprian went into hiding during the persecution and ruled the church by letters
251 b. Anthony. One of the earliest monks. He sold all his posessions and moved to the desert. Athanasius later wrote his biography
254 d. Origen
The Novatian schism develops concerning the treatment of the lapsed. (The Novatians, or Cathari, last until about 600. Read the Catholic view of the schism.) Cyprian refuses to accept the validity of baptism by schismatic priests. The church in Rome is critical of Cyprian's view, and sends him scathing letters. Carthaginian Councils
258 Cyprian is martyred before the issue is settled
263 b. Eusebius of Caesarea. He was the first church historian. Many works of the early church survive only as fragments in Eusebius's writing
284 The beginning of the Diocletian persecution
286 b. Pachomius, Egyptian pioneer of cenobitic (communal rather than solitary) monasticism
297/300 b. Athanasius, the defender of Orthodoxy during the Arian controversy of the fourth century.

The Imperial Church: 305-476

305 The end of the Diocletian persecution
310 b. Apollinaris, the heretic who said that Jesus had a human body but not a human mind; He had the divine mind. Gregory of Nazianzus' reply: "What has not been assumed cannot be restored"
311 b. Ulfilas
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at the battle of Milvian Bridge and becomes Emperor of the West. Constantine had had a vision, and used the letters chi and rho (the first two letters in "Christ") as his symbol during the battle
312 Caecilian elected bishop of Carthage. He was lax toward the Traditores, who had saved themselves by handing over scriptures during the Diocletian persecution. And he seemed unenthusiastic about the martyrs. A group in Carthage rejected Caecilian's election on the grounds that he was ordained by a traditore. They elected a rival bishop named Majorinus
313 Edict of Milan gives Christians equal rights. It is issued by Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East, but Licinius soon withdraws his committment to it
314 By this date, there is a significant number of Christians in Britain
315 Majorinus dies, Donatus is his successor. This party becomes known as the Donatist party
316 The Donatists appeal to Constantine, but he rules against them. Then he outlaws them and banishes them in an effort to unite the church
324 Constantine defeats Licinius and becomes Emperor of both East and West. Constantine favored Christianity, which effects the face of the church even today
325 Council of Nicea condemns Arianism. Arius, in Alexandria, taught that Christ was the first created being, that there was a time when He was not. The council declared that Jesus was begotten, not made, and that He is Homoousios, of the same substance as the Father
328 Athanasius becomes bishop of Alexandria
328 Constantine revokes the sentence against Arius
329 b. Basil the Great of Cappadocia, the monk who created the basic Rule for the Eastern Orthodox monks that is still in use today. Basil taught communal monasticism that serves the poor, sick, and needy. One immediate effect of the disappearance of persecution is the rise of monasticism to replace the old martyr witness
335 b. Martin of Tours, a great monk who is famous for his compassion for the poor
337 d. Constantine
339 b. Ambrose the Churchman, who fought Arianism and the revival of paganism, and promoted the power of the Church.
340 d. Eusebius of Caesarea
340 Ulfilas converted to Arian Christianity. He takes it to the Germanic tribes, gives them an alphabet, and translates the Bible into their language. Most of the Germanic tribes became Arian Christians
345 b. John Chrysostom, "Golden Mouthed." He was a bold and reforming preacher, who used the Historical-grammatical method of exegesis. This was unusual, because exegetes had been looking at the allegorical interpretation ever since Clement of Alexandria and Origen
346 d. Pachomius
347 b. Jerome, the great Bible scholar and translator, author of the Vulgate
353 Emperor Constantius releases his pro-Arian campaign and drives Athanasius from Alexandria
354 b. Augustine
356 d. Anthony, at a very old age
361-363 Reign of Julian the Apostate, who converted from Christianity to paganism and restored paganism in Rome
361 Julian the Apostate removes the restrictions against the Donatists
369 b. Pelagius
367 A letter of Athanasius names the 66 books of the canon
373 d. Athanasius
379 d. Basil the Great of Cappadocia
379-395 The reign of Theodosius, who establishes Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire
381 Council of Constantinople. The Nicene position becomes dominant again, and the legal religion of the Empire. Jesus Christ is truly human, contrary to Apollinarianism, which held that Jesus had a human body but a divine mind. The Great Cappadocians are the inspiration behind the defeat of Arianism at this council. They are St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, and St. Gregory of Nyssa
382 A council in Rome affirms the authority of the New Testament canon. It is important to remember that the content of the canon was not a conciliar decision. The church recognized, or discovered, the canon. The church did not determine the canon
383 d. Ulfilas
386 Augustine was converted in a garden in Milan after hearing a child saying "Take up and read!" He took up Romans 13: 13-14.
387 Augustine baptized by Ambrose
c. 389 b. St. Patrick. He was a British Romanized Christian who established Christianity in Ireland
390 d. Apollinaris
390 b. Leo the Great, an outstanding pope. He was influential in Chalcedon. He also argued for papal supremacy and showed political leadership in his negotiations with Attila the Hun
391 Augustine ordained a priest in Hippo, North Africa
393 The Council of Hippo recognizes the canon. To be recognized as canonical, a book had to be Apostolic, fit in with the other scriptures, and have been of fruitful use throughout the church up to that time
395 Augustine becomes bishop of Hippo
397 d. Martin of Tours
397 The Council of Carthage agrees with the Council of Hippo
398 John Chrysostom becomes bishop of Constantinople
397-401 Augustine writes Confessions
400 d. Nestorius, the heretic who said that Mary was the bearer of Christ (christokos), but not the bearer of God (theotokos). He could not call a three month old Jesus God. So he said that Jesus Christ was two persons, whose only union was a moral one
407 d. Chrysostom
410 The Fall of Rome to Alaric and the Visigoths
411-430 Augustine's Anti-Pelagian writings. Pelagius rejected the idea that we all fell in Adam (Federal Headship), original sin, and the sin nature. We could earn our salvation by works, so grace is not necessary.
Augustine insisted that we all sinned in Adam, and spiritual death, guilt, and our diseased nature is the result. God's grace is necessary not only to be able to choose to obey God's commands, but to be able to choose to turn to God initially for salvation.
413-426 Augustine writes The City of God. Some people blamed the fall of Rome on the Christians, saying it happened because Rome abandoned paganism. This is Augustine's responce, along with many diversions.
418 The Council of Carthage anathematized the teachings of Pelagius.
420 d. Jerome
420 d. Pelagius
429 Arian Vandals cross into Africa. After this, Western Emperors became puppets of Germanic generals
430 d. Augustine
431 Council of Ephesus. Jesus Christ is one person, contrary to Nestorianism, which held that Christ was two persons, one divine and one human
448 Leo writes an epistle to Flavian, The Tome of Leo, to encourage him. It encapsulates the Christology of the church, drawing from Augustine and Tertullian
449 The Latrocinium (Robber's) Council. Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria, presided. This Council declared Eutychianism, which held that Christ had only one nature, to be orthodox. According to this heresy, His humanity was not like ours. This would make redemption impossible. The council deposed Flavian, the orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople
451 Council of Chalcedon. Eutychianism is condemned, Dioscorus is deposed, The Tome of Leo is confirmed. Jesus Christ is "two natures, the Divine of the same substance as the Father (against Arianism), the human of the same substance as us (against Eutychianism), which are united unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably(against Nestorianism)." The church remains divided over these issues for the next 200 years
c. 461 d. St. Patrick
461 d. Leo the Great
476 The last Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, is deposed by Odoacer, a German general

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The Early Middle Ages: 476-1000

480 b. Boethius, a significant thinker who influences the Middle ages. In The Consolation of Philosophy he tries to find comfort in reason and philosophy. He doesn't quote scripture
480 b. Benedict of Nursia, who wrote the normal Rule for Western monks to the present
521 b. Columba, Irish missionary to Scotland working from the isle of Iona
540 b. Columban, Irish missionary to the continent when it was struggling with a resurgence of paganism
525 d. Boethius
529 The Council of Orange approves the Augustinian doctrine of sin and grace, but without absolute predestination
540 b. Gregory the Great
550 d. Benedict of Nursia
560 b. Isidore of Seville, whose Book of Sentences was the key book of theology until the twelfth century
575 Gregory the Great becomes a monk
590 Gregory the Great becomes pope. He was a very effective and popular pope during a time when the government was weak. He fed the peasants and protected farms and villages from Lombard invasion. His development of the doctrine of purgatory was instrumental in establishing the medieval Roman Catholic sacramental system
596 Gregory sends Augustine of Canterbury to convert the pagans in England. He imposed the Roman liturgy on the old British Christians
597 d. Columba, missionary to Scotland
602 Through Gregory's influence and his baptism of a Lombard King's child, the Lombards begin converting from Arianism to Orthodoxy
604 d. Gregory the Great
613 d. Augustine of Canterbury
615 d. Columban, missionary to the continent
622 Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina, the beginning of Islam
635 The Nestorian church did not disappear after the council of Ephesus in 431. They evangelized east. By 635 Nestorian Christianity had reached the heart of China, but it disappeared after two hundred years
636 d. Isidore of Seville
637 b. Wilfrid, British missionary to Belgium
663 Synod of Whitby reconciles the old British liturgy and the Roman liturgy
675 b. John of Damascus, an important Eastern Orthodox mystic
680 b. Boniface, who brought Anglo-Saxon Christianity to the pagans in Germany. He cut down the pagan's sacred tree and built a church out of it
8th Century Composition of Be Thou My Vision
709 d. Wilfrid
711 Islam has spread from India to North Africa. All of North Africa is under Islamic control
720 Muslims take Spain
726-787 The iconoclastic controversy. Emperor Leo III attacked the use of images. John of Damascus defended the use of icons in worship by differentiating between veneration and worship. He also argued that the use of images is an affirmation of Christ's humanity, because a real person can be depicted. The opposition responds that images of Christ are not valid depictions because they can only represent his humanity, but not his divinity
732 Europeans turn back the Muslims at the Battle of Tours
749 d. John of Damascus
754 d. Boniface
787 Council of Nicea supports the decision of John of Damascus concerning icons. This decision was not well recieved in the West because John's words for veneration and worship were difficult to translate
800 Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne head of the Holy Roman Empire (a.k.a. the Nominally Christian Germanic Kingdom). His dynasty is called the Carolingian Empire. His reign is the cultural high point of the Early Middle Ages
875-950 The Dark Ages. The Carolingian Empire was weakened and was assailed by new invaders. This period also marks the low point of the papacy

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The High Middle Ages: 1000-1300

1014 Pope Benedict VIII officially added filioque to the Nicene Creed. It means that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. He did this to insist on the equality of the deity. But the Eastern Church insists that the Holy Spirit came from the Father through the Son. They are offended that the West altered the Creed without an ecumenical council
1033 b. Anselm, father of scholasticism. He proposed the ontological argument for the existence of God. He argued for the necessity of the Incarnation and Redemption of Christ
1054 Pope Leo IX's delegate, Cardinal Humbert, laid a sentence of anathema on the alter of St. Sophia, the most prestigous Eastern Orthodox church. The two churches are permanently separated
1073 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Emporor Henry IV. The high point of papal supremacy
1079 b. Peter Abelard, the Refiner of Scholasticism. He came to some heretical conclusions. For example, he believed that the death of Christ was just a moral example for us to follow. His autobiography is called A History of Calamities, in part because he was emasculated for having an affair with his young neice
1079 Under the Seljuk Turks, the Muslims are more determined than previously to keep the Christians from making pilgrimages to the Holy Land
1093 b. Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential person of his day. He helped reform the monastaries. He was a great preacher, in spite of his allegorical exegesis. And he was Augustinian in his doctrines of grace, which later gave Calvin and the other reformers an anchor in the High Middle Ages
1096-1099 The First Crusade fought for lofty ideals. The pope wanted to save Constantinople, save the Byzantine Empire, and thus heal the breech between the Eastern and Western Church. They were able to temporarily regain the Holy Land
1100 b. Peter Lombard, scholastic author of Four Books on the Sentences, the standard theological text for 200 years. It influenced Calvin's Institutes
1109 d. Anselm
1140 b. Peter Waldo in Lyons, France. He is the founder of an old, old protestant church (300 years before Luther). The Waldensian church still exists in some parts of the world today, but in most countries it merged with the Methodists and Presbyterians. Waldensians stress the authority of scripture and lay preaching. They also come to reject salvation by sacraments
1143 d. Peter Abelard
1147-1148 The Second Crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux was the chief motivator of this crusade, but somehow his reputation survives it. It was a disastrous failure. The failure was blamed by the Westerners on the lack of committment of the Eastern Church. The wedge is driven deeper
1153 d. Bernard of Clairvaux
1174 Peter Waldo converted
1179 Two of Waldo's followers (called Waldensians) are laughed out of the Third Lateran Council after being tricked into saying that Mary was the mother of Christ. They didn't know they were agreeing with Nestorius
1181/82 b. Francis of Assisi
1184 Waldensians are declared heretical
1187 Muslims retake Jerusalem
1189-1192 The Third Crusade is an ineffective attempt to recover Jerusalem
1200-1204 The Fourth Crusade. The Crusaders finished this crusade by looting Constantinople, the seat of the Eastern Orthodox church. So much for the lofty ideals of the First Crusade
1209 Innocent III proclaims a "crusade", a papal inquisition, against the Waldensians
1212 The Children's Crusade. The children felt they could take the Holy Land supernaturally because they were pure in heart. Most of them were drowned, murdered, or sold into slavery
1215 Fourth Lateran Council requires annual communion for salvation. Also condemns the Waldensians. They are persecuted for the next 600 years. They sought refuge in the Alps, and thus were not directly involved in the Reformation of Luther until later
1216 Papal approval for the Dominicans, the Order of Preachers. Their purpose was to oppose heresy with piety, learning and zeal
1219-1221 The Fifth Crusade. The crusaders temporarily held Damietta in Egypt. Francis of Assisi went with the crusaders. But where they stopped, Francis kept going. He went unarmed into the presence of the sultan and preached to him
1224 St. Francis's Stigmata, a mystical experience of the wounds of Christ
1224/25 b. Thomas Aquinus, the chief teacher of the Catholic Church. Author of Summa Contra Gentiles, an apologetic handbook for Dominican missionaries to Jews, Muslims, and heretics in Spain, and Summa Theologica, the theological textbook that supplanted Lombard's Sentences as the chief theological work of the Middle Ages
1225 Francis writes "The Canticle of the Sun", which we know as "All Creatures of Our God and King"
1226 d. Francis
1229 The Sixth Crusade. Frederick II temporarily gained Jerusalem by making a treaty with the sultan
1232 b. Raymund Lull, first missionary to the Muslims
1248 The Seventh Crusade. St. Louis IX of France is defeated in Egypt. This was the last crusade. The final result of the crusades is that the western Christians drove a wedge between the Church and the Jews, between the Church and the Muslims, and between the Western and Eastern Church.

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The Late Middle Ages: 1300-1500

c.1300-c.1400 The Black Death. 1/3 of the population from India to Iceland is wiped out, including about 1/2 of Britain
1309 The beginning of the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church." For 70 years the papacy was in Avignon and under the thumb of the King of France. The papacy was pro-France, and Britain was at war with France
1316 Raymund Lull stoned to death
1330 b. John Wycliffe, the most important theologian in Oxford, the most important university in Europe. He taught that we must rely altogether on the sufferings of Christ. "Beware of seeking to be justified in any other way than by His righteousness"
1337 Beginning of the Hundred Years' War
1349 d. Thomas Bradwardine, who influenced Wycliffe to adopt Augustine's doctrine of grace and to reject the Semi-Pelagianism of the Roman Catholic church
1371 b. John Huss, Bohemian pre-reformer. He was greatly influenced by Wycliffe. He rejected indulgences and said Christ is the head of the Church, not the pope
1377 The end of the "Babylonian Captivity"
1378 The Great Schism. Pope Gregory XI moves the papacy back to Rome. France declares Clement VII pope in Avignon. There are two competing popes for close to 40 years
1380 b. Thomas a Kempis, author of Imitation of Christ
1381 The Peasant's Revolt. 30,000 angry peasants descend on London
1381 Because of his sympathy for the peasants, Wycliffe is suspected of involvement with the revolt. He is banished from Oxford. During this period, he and his followers translate the Bible from the Vulgate into English
1384 d. Wycliffe, of natural causes
1415 Council of Constance condemns Wycliffe
July 6, 1415 Council of Constance burns John Huss, in violation of the Emperor's promise of safe conduct. The Emperor is told "It is not necessary to keep one's word to a heretic."
1417 The Council of Constance deposes both popes and elects a new one. This ends the Great Schism. It is a high point for Conciliarism, the idea that the councils are superior to the papacy
1428 The Catholic Church burned the bones of Wycliffe and threw them in the Swift river
1452 b. Savonarola, the great preacher. He taught the authority of scripture and understood the shortcomings of the Church
1453 End of the Hundred Years' War
1483 b. Martin Luther
1492 Erasmus ordained. Erasmus's Humanist movement was beginning to stir some members of the church to moral reform
1492 Columbus sails. Repercussions ensue
1497 b. Philip Melanchthon
1498 d. Savonarola

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The Reformation: 1500-1599

1504 b. Heinrich Bullinger
1507 Luther is ordained as a preist at Erfurt
Henry VIII becomes King of England in 1509
1509 b. John Calvin
1510 Luther sent to Rome on monastic business. He saw the corruption of the church
1513 Leo X becomes Pope
1514 b. John Knox
1515 While teaching on Romans, Luther realizes faith and justification are the work of God
1517 Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the church in Wittenburg. It is the first public act of the Reformation Zwingli's reform is also underway
1519 Charles V becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
1521 Luther is excommunicated
1525 The Bondage of the Will. Many of the essays, discourses, treatises, conversations, etc. that Luther had over the years are collected in his Table Talk
1529 The Colloquy of Marburg
1531 d. Ulrich Zwingli
c. 1532 or 1533 Calvin's conversion
1534 Henry VIII declares himself "The only supreme head in earth of the Church of England"
1535 Anabaptists take over Muenster
1536 d. Erasmus
1536 Menno Simons rejects Catholicism, becomes an Anabaptist, and helps restore that movement back to pacifism
1536 William Tyndale strangled and burned at the stake. He was the first to translate the Bible into English from the original languages
1536 First edition of Calvin's Institutes
1540 Jesuit order is founded. The Catholic Reformation is under way
c. 1543 Knox converted
1545 The Council of Trent begins
1546 d. Luther
1547 The young Edward VI becomes King of England. The Duke of Somerset acts as regent, and many reforms take place
1549 Consensus Tigurinus brings Zwinglians and Calvinists to agreement about communion
1553 Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) begins her reign
Many protestants who flee Mary's reign are deeply impacted by exposure to a more true reformation on the continent. John Knox is among them 1558 Elizabeth is crowned, the Marian exiles return
1559 Last edition of the Institutes
1559 The Act of Uniformity makes the 1559 Book of Common Prayer the standard in the Church of England and penalizes anyone who fails to use it. It is not reformed enough for the Puritans
1560 b. Jacobus Arminius
Parliament approves the Scot's Confession, penned by the six Johns (including Knox)
1561 d. pacifist Anabaptist leader Menno Simons
1563 The Council of Trent is finished
1564 d. John Calvin
1566 Bullinger writes The Second Helvetic Confession
1567-1568 The Vestments Controversy. Puritans did not want the ceremony and ritual symbolized by the robes of the Church of England
1571 Thirty Nine Articles are finalized
1572 d. John Knox
1572 b. John Donne, devout Anglican minister and poet
1572 Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, the worst persecution of Huguenots
1575 d. Bullinger
1582 The General Assembly in Scotland, with Andrew Melville as moderator, ratifies the "Second Book of Discipline." It has been called the Magna Carta of Presbyterianism
1593 b. George Herbert, Anglican country parson and poet
1596 b. Moses Amyrald, founder of Amyraldianism, which is basically Calvinism minus limited atonement. Amyraldianism became the theology of the School of Saumer in France
1596 b. Descartes, founder of rationalism
1598 Edict of Nantes grants Huguenots greater religious freedom

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The Puritans: 1600-1699

1603 Arminius takes the position that predestination is based on fore-knowledge
1603 James I becomes King
1604 The Puritans meet James at Hampton Court. Their hopes are dashed
1609 d. Jacobus Arminius
1610 b. Brother Lawrence
1610 The Arminians issue the Remonstrance containing 5 articles
1611 The King James Version, the most influential English translation of the Bible
1615 b. Puritan Richard Baxter, author of The Reformed Pastor
1616 b. Puritan John Owen, called the Calvin of England
1618 The Book of Sports is published. It contradicts the Puritan view of the Sabbath, but Puritans are forced to read it
1618-1619 The Synod of Dort is called in the Netherlands to answer the Arminians. The response forms 5 point Calvinism
1620 Plymouth, Massachusetts colony founded by Puritans
1623 b. Blaise Pascal
1623 b. Francis Turretin
1625 Charles I becomes King. He too is against the Puritans
1628 William Laud becomes Bishop of London and steps up oppression of the Puritans
1628 b. Puritan John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim's Progress among many other works of poetry and prose
1629 Charles I dismisses Parliament
1630 John Winthrop and many Puritans migrate to America
1632 b. Locke, founder of empiricism
1633 The Book of Sports is renewed
1636 Harvard founded by Puritans
1638 The National Covenant
1640 Charles I summons Parliament. They curtail his power
1643 The Solemn League and Covenant
1643-1646 The Westminster Assembly
1646 Cromwell's army defeats the King at the Battle of Naseby
1647 George Fox founds the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
1649 Charles I is executed. Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
c. 1650's Brother Lawrence became a monk, and "walk(ed) with God around a kitchen for forty years" (Great Christian Books, 57) But he did it to glorify God
1654 Conversion of Pascal. He started collecting notes for an Apology for the Christian Religion. It was unfinished, but his notes were published posthumously as Pensees
1658 d. Cromwell
1660 Charles II becomes King of England
1661-1663 John Eliot publishes the Bible in Algonkian, a Native American language. Over the course of his life he also helped plant at least 14 Native American churches
1662 d. Pascal
1662 New Act of Uniformity, over two thousand Puritan pastors resign or are forced out
1675 Philip Jacob Spener's Pia Desideria helps begin the pietist movement
Edict of Nantes is revoked, making Protestantism illegal again in France. Many huguenots emigrated, some stayed and met in secret
1685 b. J.S.Bach, called the fifth evangelist
1687 d. Turretin. His Institutes of Elentic Theology were published the next year
1688 William and Mary take the throne. Puritans are free to preach and establish their own churches
1691 d. Brother Lawrence

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The Great Awakening: 1700-1799

1703 b. Jonathan Edwards
1706 Francis Makemie founds the first Presbytery in America in Philadelphia
1714 b. Immanuel Kant, a leader of the Romantic movement. He said knowledge is not what is, but only what our minds can grasp
1714 b. George Whitefield
1727 "The Golden Summer." A revival broke out among Count Nikolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf and the Hussite Moravian refugees he had taken in. Many Moravian missionaries were sent overseas
During the 1720's, revival breaks out as Theodore Frelinghuysen preaches in New Jersey. Revival spreads through Gilbert Tennant to New Brunswick. It is the first stirrings of the First Great Awakening
1734-1737 The Great Awakening continues as Jonathan Edwards preaches in Massachusettes. Revival spreads to Connecticut
1739-41 George Whitefield joins Edwards. He travelled diligently, travelling between England and America 13 times, and was able to reach about 80% of the colonists with the gospel
1739 The Methodists begin as a parachurch society in London
1741 The conservative Old Side/ pro-revival New Side controversy in American Presbyterianism
1746 Princeton founded by the Presbyterians
1754 Dartmouth founded for Native Americans
1758 Old Side/New Side schism healed
1759 b. Charles Simeon, founder of low-church party of Church of England
1759 b. William Wilberforce, an evangelical in the Church of England, who fought against slavery and wrote Real Christianity
1761 b. William Carey
1764 Brown founded by Baptists
1766 Rutgers founded by Dutch Reformed. All these new colleges were fruit of the Great Awakening
1768 Lady Huntingdon, who brought Methodism to the upper classes and founded "The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion", opened Trevecca House as a Methodist Seminary
1770 d. Whitefield.
1772 b. Archibald Alexander, who would organize Princeton Theological Seminary
c.1773-1775 Founded, the first black Baptist church in America, Silver Bluff, South Carolina
1779 Olney Hymns produced by John Newton and William Cowper. It includes "How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds" and "Amazing Grace"
1783 b. Asahel Nettleton
1784 John Wesley baptizes Thomas Coke, making Methodism a denomination separate from the Church of England
1787 Archibald Alexander at Hampton Sydney College. May be considered the first early stirrings of the Second Great Awakening
1791 d. Lady Huntingdon
1792 William Carey preaches "Expect great things from God. Attempt great things for God."
1792 Particular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen founded, later called the Baptist Missionary Society
1792 b. Charles Finney, inventor of modern revivalism
1795 London Missionary Society founded
1797 b. Charles Hodge
1799 Church Missionary Society founded
1799 Friedrich Schleiermacher's On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers presented Christianity in a Romantic, subjective light. Precursor to Liberalism

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The Revivalists: 1800-1921

1800 The first camp meeting in Kentucky is presided over by Calvinist James McGready
1801 William Carey's Bengali New Testament published
1801 The Cane Ridge Revival in Kentucky is an early stirring of the Second Great Awakening
1808 Henry Martyn publishes the New Testament in Hindustani
1809 Harvard having been lost to Unitarianism, Andover Seminary is founded
1812 Princeton Seminary founded
1812 b. James Henley Thornwell, the great Southern Presbyterian mind whose influence is still felt in the PCA
1813 b. David Livingston, missionary and explorer in Africa
1813 b. Soren Kierkegaard
African Methodist Episcopal Church founded in 1816 by Richard Allen, a freedman who had been the first black Methodist to be ordained as a deacon
1824 Charles Finney leads revivals from Wilmingham to Boston. The Second Great Awakening is underway
1825 Charles Hodge founds the Princeton Review
1834 d. William Carey, called "the Father of Modern Missions"
1834 b. C.H.Spurgeon
1835 Hodge's Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans
1835 Finney's Lectures on Revivals
1833-1841 The Oxford Movement, or the Tractarian Movement, attempts to bring the Church of England closer to Catholicism. Tried to popularize the Via Media. Led by John Henry Newman
1835-1837 Adoniram Judson translates the Bible into Burmese
1837 b. Abraham Kuyper
1837 Old School/New School controversy splits American Presbyterianism
1843 The Disruption of the church in Scotland
1844 d. Asahel Nettleton, Calvinist leader who opposed Finney's formulaic view of revivalism during the Second Great Awakening
1845 John Henry Newman converts to Roman Catholicism
1848 b. Mary Slessor, who the Africans she would minister to called "The Mother of All of Life"
1851 d. Archibald Alexander
1851 b. B.B.Warfield, Princeton theologian who would defend inerrancy
1852 b. Adolf Schlatter, a respected conservative voice in liberal Germany
1854 Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary
1855 d. Kierkegaard
1857 Finney's Lectures to Professing Christians written to influence the practice of "Christian Perfection"
Origen of Species, 1859, Darwin
1860 Essays and Reviews published. A liberal manifesto by 7 Church of England priests
1861 Spurgeon moves to the Metropolitan Tabernacle. Soon he is preaching to over 6,000 per week
1864 Old School/New School schism healed in the South
1869 Old School/New School schism healed in the North
1870 Vatican I, and the declaration of Papal Infallibility when speaking ex cathedra
1870 Fifty year celebration of Friedrich August Tholuck's professorship at Halle. Tholuck was the spiritual father of thousands of students, and mentored Charles Hodge
1873 d. David Livingston
1875 d. Charles Finney
1874 The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation by Albrecht Ritschl reduces Christianity to a social gospel
1878 d. Charles Hodge
1881 b. J.Gresham Machen
1886 Abraham Kuyper leads a major sucession in the Dutch Reformed Church
1886 The Student Volunteer Movement
1886 b. Karl Barth
1890 d. John Henry Newman, who became one of the most influential Roman Catholic thinkers of his time
1892 d. C.H.Spurgeon
1898 Kuyper's Stone Lectures urge the development of a Christian worldview encompassing all of life
1900 What is Christianity by Adolf Harnack reduces Christianity to the personality of Jesus in the synoptics, without any supernatural elements
1906 Azusa St. Revival, a major catalyst to the Pentecostal and Charismatic churches
1921 d. B.B.Warfield

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© 1999 The Old Time Gospel Ministry
"When to seek God has become life and to glorify God has become self, then you have truly found God."